Inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress measurements in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus with or without metabolic syndrome

The aims of the present study were to report the frequency of metabolic syndrome in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); to verify differences in inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress in SLE patients with or without metabolic syndrome; and to assess which metabolic syndrome components are associated with oxidative stress and disease activity. The study included 58 SLE patients and 105 controls. SLE patients were divided in two groups, with and without metabolic syndrome. 41.4% patients met the criteria for metabolic syndrome compared with 10.5% controls. Patients with SLE and metabolic syndrome had significantly raised serum uric acid, C-reactive protein (CRP), lipid hydroperoxides, and protein oxidation when compared with patients with SLE without metabolic syndrome. Lipid hydroperoxides were correlated with CRP, whereas protein oxidation was associated with waist circumference and uric acid. There was a positive association between serum C3 and C4 and glucose and between C3 and CRP. SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) scores were positively correlated with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). In conclusion, SLE patients have a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and this syndrome directly contributes to increase inflammatory status and oxidative stress. Inflammatory processes, being overweight/obese, and uric acid may favor oxidative stress increases in patients with SLE and metabolic syndrome. C3 and C4 may have a positive acute-phase protein behavior in patients with SLE.

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